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1840 - 1896 (Creation)
- Schultz, John Christian
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Name of creator
John Christian Schultz was born in Amherstburg, Essex County, Ontario, on 1 January 1840, the son of William Schultz and Elizabeth Riley. He claimed to have attended Oberlin College, as well as Victoria University, Cobourg, and to have graduated from Queen’s University, Kingston. Oberlin has no record of his attendance. He attended one term at Victoria, and two terms at Queen’s, but received no degree. Thus, there is no evidence of his having received a medical degree or having been licensed by Victoria University, as he later claimed. In 1861 he went to Fort Garry to visit his half-brother, Henry McKenney. Soon after his arrival, he advertised in the Nor’Wester as “Physician and Surgeon.” According to Archbishop Matheson, Schultz was the first doctor in the community to undertake major surgery in his attempt to save the life of John H. Sutherland.
On 11 September 1867, he married Agnes Campbell Farquharson, the daughter of James Farquharson.
When Louis Riel formed his Provisional government in 1869 Schultz played a leading role in opposing it. In December 1869 he and a party defending his house were captured by the Métis and imprisoned at Upper Fort Garry. Schultz escaped with his wife’s assistance, attempted to organize an opposition to Riel, and eventually left the settlement via an overland route through Minnesota for eastern Canada, where he helped organize Ontario agitation against the Métis for the murder of Thomas Scott. He returned to Manitoba in September 1870, and received a substantial claim for rebellion losses.
He then turned to politics. In the provincial election of 27 December 1870 he was defeated by Donald A. Smith in the constituency of Winnipeg-St. John’s. He was elected as a Conservative to represent Lisgar in the House of Commons from 1871 to 1882. In 1877, he was a member of the First Convocation of the University of Manitoba.
From 1871 to 1874 he was Captain of a volunteer rifle company in Manitoba. In 1872 he was appointed a member of the executive council of the North-West Territories, the Dominion Board of Health for Manitoba and the North-West Territories and the Board of Governors of the Manitoba Medical Board. In addition, he was a patron of many Manitoba associations.
After his defeat in the 1882 general election by A. W. Ross, he was called to the Canadian Senate on 23 September 1882. He took an active part in the House of Commons and Senate discussions on Indian lands and prohibition, and was chairman of the Senate Committee on North-West Food Products and of the Committee upon the Resources of the Mackenzie Basin.
He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of Manitoba on 1 July 1888, and resigned 1 September 1895, because of poor health. In 1894 he was knighted as Knight Commander of St. Michael and St. George. Through his real estate holdings, the North-West Trading Company, and his interest in the South Western Railway Company and the Great North-West Telegraph Company, he gained considerable wealth. He died at Monterrey, Mexico, where he had gone for his health, on 13 April 1896.
Scope and content
The John Christian Schultz file contains the following material:
0. Obits.: MMB v117, 1931, "35 Years Ago Yesterday"; also “55 Years Ago Yesterday” (incl amusing incident re JCS ); CMAJ v21(5) Nov 1929 (wife) (2pp)
1. Entry from AH Kelly's Cyclopedia of American medical biography Saunders 1912 v.1 pp 351-352 (2pp)
2. Entry from “Notes on early medical men of Manitoba" by Archbishop Matheson, (original in Ross Mitchell file) (1p)
3. Entry from scribbler attr. to Ruth Monk “John Christian Schultz” (2pp)
4. Entry from D Swartz's “Canadians who have distinguished themselves in other fields” MMR 34, 1954 (1p)
5. “Eighty years ago - June 8, 1881” re proposal to build Wpg’s first block, 1961 WFP 8 June 1961 (1p)
6. WE Ingersoll's “Yarns of early Winnipeg: an expert on Red River cart travel No 36” WFP 30 May 1962 (1p)
7. MH Campbell's “A doctor afield in Manitoba” MMR 43(5) 281-84 1963 (3pp reprint+12pp reprint + 9pp from Man Hist Society website)
8. Copy “Sir John Christian Schultz 1840-1896”: from Academy of Med, Toronto’s Centennial Map 1967 (1p)
9. Mitchell R “Dr. John Christian Schultz - Patriot or troublemaker?” paper read before Meridian Lodge no.140 A.F and A.M. on Sept 18, 1969, typescript (8pp)
10. “Sir John Christian Schultz, K.C.M.G. Story of Manitoba pp5-10 (6pp)
11. "Lieutenant-Governor Schultz on Seven Oaks" by RB Mitchell MMB v12, 1932 (2pp)
12. JCS, JH Ashdown and the Riel Rebellion Wpg Real Estate Bd News 15 Sept 2006 (bottom of col 2, top of col 3) (1p)
13. “A forgotten northern fortress” MMB (1931) 123: 25 (4pp)
14. "35 Years Ago Today - 1895" JCS created K.C.M.G; "50 Years Ago Today -1880" elected director Wpg & HBC railway MMB v106, 1930; (1p)
15. “How Dr. Schultz defied the Hudson’s Bay Company” from Macoun’s History of the Great Northwest MMB 113: 16, 18 1931 (2pp)
16. “Doctors as politicians …” MMB 107:4-5 1930 (1p)
17. “Thirty years ago today -1899” death of Monkman, half-breed who assisted Dr. Schultz in escape from Fort Garry in 1870 MMB 94:4 1929 (1p)
18. RB Mitchell's “Lieutenant-Governor Schultz on Seven Oaks” MMB (1932) 12:134 (2pp)
19.”Pancreatic milk notes unveiled” WFP Jun 2, 1970 (1p)
20. Biog selections on JCS from J Blanchard's A Thousand Miles of Prairie, the Manitoba Historical Society and the History of Western Canada (4pp)
- file 21.9, folder 4 RB Mitchell: "The Early Doctors of Manitoba" CMAJ v33:90-91 1935